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Fuel Part 91 MOS

See expandable help boxes below if stuck.

This page is shared by RPL, PPL and CPL candidates.

RPL and PPL, you will be required to know the rules for the all categories on Table 19.02, which is just a matter of referring to the Table 91.02 from the Part 91 MOS or in the Part 91 Plain English Guide.  Aircraft will be required to know helicopter and vice versa.

Make sure you have a printed copy of Table 19.02 and you absolutely must know this Table 19.02 like the back of your hand.

CPL candidates will be required to know Part 91 and Part 135 fuel requirements which are different.

Practice Exam

How To Do An Exam  How To Do An Exam1.Read carefully & answer questions
3.Complete all questions
7.Scroll down and view all questions
8.Record incorrect responses (red) in A4 book
9.Record where you find that info How To Do Exam Super Cycles How To Do Exam Super Cycles1.Read question and select answer, then press check.
2.Re-read critical part of question, and answer by saying it out loud or muttering it at least 3 times. (Memory tip)
3.Select NEXT and repeat until you are finished all questions.
4. When finished select QUIZ SUMMARY then FINISH QUIZ to view your score.
5.Then select VIEW QUESTIONS to view all correct and incorrect responses.
6.In A4 book RECORD your result and a LIST of the topics you got wrong.
7.Go to textbook index and record pages for these topic as you will keep getting many of the same questions wrong with study breaks.
8.STUDY from the text your wrong topics, then RETEST after a minimum 10 min break.
9.RECORD study techniques used from HOW TO STUDY VIDEOS and pre or post study test scores, to help identify your best study methods. How To Record Results  How To Record Results1.Explained in How To Study, Video’s
2.Allow 1 x A4 page per exam
3.Record incorrect responses (red) in A4 book
4.Give each item a number
5.Record where you found the info
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3.Many exams serve a limited number and need to be sat multiple times to see all questions. How To Report Errors  How To Report Errors1.Use the blue feedback tab on the right.
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6.Please refrain from using Messenger wherever possible Why Are Some AIP References Wrong?  Why Are Some AIP References Wrong?1.The AIP is constantly changing and so are the references
2.The information you need will be close to the old reference
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Exams Completed:  100%   Exams Completed: 1/1


Specific Gravity Of AVGAS Expand

ERSA states SG of AVGAS is 0.72kg per L.

The old pre Dec 2 2021 RPL PPL CPL workbook on the Charlie loading system used to state it is 0.71 kg per L.

So which do you use and why?

We used to use:

0.71 when doing Charlie and 0.72 for everything else.

Under Part 91 we now use 0.72 for all AVGAS

Gavin from CASA has stated that using 0.71 or 0.72 will be insufficient difference to get a question wrong in RPL PPL and CPL exams.

As of Dec 2 2021 we are changing all our calculations to use 0.72 for AVGAS unless you are instructed otherwise in the question.

Safe Endurance – Worked Example Expand

Safe endurance =  fuel available – all the reserves ( which includes any INTER/TEMPO or specified holding)

Safe endurance is fuel that you can PLAN to burn in flight, yet still have the required reserves left in the tanks.

Flight (large, piston engine aeroplane) to an airfield with an INTER holding ;


Fuel at start = 153 mins = 12 (start & taxi) + 60 (Trip Fuel) + 3 (5% Variable reserve) + 30 (INTER holding) + 45 (Fixed Reserve)

So potential exam question may say: Given  (large pist. aeropl.) FOB at startup is 153 min , 30min INTER holding applies, what is safe endurance.

153 mins = 12 min (start & taxi) + ?min (Trip Fuel) + (5% Variable reserve) + 30 min (INTER holding) + 45 min (Fixed Reserve)

153 – 12 – 30 – 45 = Trip fuel + 5%

63 = 105% of Trip Fuel

Trip Fuel = 63 / 1.05 = 60 mins

Safe Endurance = 60 minutes

Final Reserve Fuel (aka Fixed Reserve) Table Expand Example Calculation Table From Old CAAP 234 Expand Putting It All Together Expand

Example from old CAAP 234. CASA has not released new examples yet for Part 91. See below for our method.

Under Part 91 we believe the calculation will work as follows

The figures below are random figures used to show a calculation

a. Taxi Fuel 8 min, 5L
b. Trip Fuel 100 min, 100L
c. Contingency Fuel (5% of b) 5 min, 5L
d. Destination Alternate Fuel 20 min, 20L
e. Final Reserve Fuel 30 min, 30L
f. Additional Fuel 0 min, 0L
g. Holding Fuel 0 min, 0L
h. Fuel Required (a+b+c+d+e+f+g) 163 min, 160L

Don’t forget to add fuel for INTER or TEMPO if required.

Final Reserve Fuel (aka Fixed Reserve) Sample Calculation Expand

Aeroplane VH-BOO is a small piston aircraft with fuel consumption rate of 58lbs per hour. Give MINIMUM Final Fuel Reserve in kg to the nearest kg.

58lbs per hour – From table 19.02 below if required to carry 30 minutes

58lbs / 30/60 = 29lbs

From AIP weight tables 1kg of AVGAS = 2.2lbs

29 / 2.2 = 13.181818kg

If you round down to 13kg its close, but technically you are illegal and carrying less than the minimum fuel. So, unless a questions states “to the nearest kg” always only round as a last final step and make sure you follow the instructions.

Aeroplan requires 1/2 hour final fuel reserve (FFR) at 80kg per hour. What is the minimum quantity of fuel that must be on board for FFR?

0.5 * 80 = 40kg

40kg / 0.72kg = 55.55 L

In whole numbers = 56 L

Startup Taxi Take-off Fuel Expand

Startup & taxi fuel is not part of trip fuel.

Take off fuel is.

A simple estimate of the proportion can be used.

In most examples CASA estimates 6L for each.

Climb Fuel Sample Calculation Expand

From the old CAAP 234 sample calculations issued by CASA in 2018

Cruise Fuel Sample Calculation Expand Fuel Required Sample Calculation Expand Margin Fuel & Safe Endurance Calculation Expand Approach Fuel Expand Contingency Fuel (aka Variable Reserve) Details Expand

This example is from the old CAAP 234

Note new Contingency Fuel is either 5% or 0%