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PPL Requirements

APPENDIX 1. FLIGHT CREW LICENCES AND AIRCRAFT CATEGORY RATINGS

For a private pilot licence (PPL) you must be at least 17 years old and successfully complete an integrated or non-integrated course of training.

Integrated courses require (amongst other things) 35 hours of flight time, including 10 hours solo, five hours solo cross country and two hours instrument time.

Non-integrated courses require an additional five hours flight time (40 hours in total).

NOTE - PPL MUST KNOW RPL CONTENT

RPL CONTENT INDICATED IN BY (RPL)

Unit 1.1.1 BAKC: Basic aeronautical knowledge – all aircraft categories (RPL & PPL)

2.1 Direction of flight

2.1.1          Describe direction using the following methods:

(a)        as a 3 figure group;

(b)        as a 2 figure group;

(c)        in the clock code.

2.1.2          Define the meaning of aircraft heading (HDG).

2.1.3          Describe the differences between the following terms when used to describe direction:

(a)        true (T);

(b)        magnetic (M);

(c)        compass (C).

2.2 Distance, speed and velocity

2.2.1          State the units used for lateral distance in respect of the following:

(a)        navigation;

(b)        visibility.

2.2.2          Define the meaning of knot (kt) when used to express aircraft speed.

2.2.3          Define wind velocity (W/V).

2.2.4          Differentiate between the following acronyms:

(a)        IAS;

(b)        CAS;

(c)        TAS;

(d)        GS.

2.3 Time

2.2.1          State the units used for lateral distance in respect of the following:

(a)        navigation;

(b)        visibility.

2.3.1          Express time as a 4 figure group (24 hour time).

2.3.2          Convert local standard time to UTC.

2.3.3          Convert UTC to local standard time.

2.2.2          Define the meaning of knot (kt) when used to express aircraft speed.

2.2.3          Define wind velocity (W/V).

2.2.4          Differentiate between the following acronyms:

(a)        IAS;

(b)        CAS;

(c)        TAS;

(d)        GS.

2.4 Units of measurement

2.4.1          State the units used to describe vertical measurement and the differences between the following:

(a)        height;

(b)        altitude;

(c)        elevation.

2.4.2          State the unit of measurement used to express:

(a)        runway dimensions;

(b)        temperature;

(c)        atmospheric pressure;

(d)        weight;

(e)        volume (liquids);

(f)         visibility.

2.5 Basic physics

2.5.1          Describe the meaning of kinetic and potential energy and the relationship to basic aircraft operations.

2.5.2          Describe the meaning of ‘aircraft energy state’ with respect to kinetic and potential energy.

2.5.3          Describe the effects on ‘aircraft energy state’ of acceleration, deceleration, climb and descent.

3.1 Piston engine aircraft

3.1.1          Describe the basic principle of operation of a 4 stroke cycle internal combustion engine and state the purpose and function of the following components:

(a)        cylinders;

(b)        pistons;

(c)        piston rings;

(d)        inlet/exhaust valves;

(e)        crank shaft;

(f)         cam shaft;

(g)        spark plugs.

3.1.2          Describe the effect of increasing altitude and temperature on engine performance and how the following affect the power output of an engine:

(a)        throttle lever position;

(b)        RPM.

3.1 Piston engine aircraft

3.1.3          State the function of the following engine components and/or features:

(a)        carburettor;

(b)        throttle;

(c)        magneto, dual ignition;

(d)        alternator;

(e)        battery, battery compartment vent;

(f)         propeller;

(g)        circuit breaker, fuse, bus bar;

(h)        impulse start;

(i)         oil cooler;

(j)         fuel tank vents.

3.1 Piston engine aircraft

3.1.4          In relation to power plants and systems, state the purpose and importance of monitoring the following gauges:

(a)        RPM (tachometer);

(b)        CHT and EGT;

(c)        voltmeter, ammeter, loadmeter;

(d)        fuel pressure;

(e)        oil temperature and pressure.

3.1.5          Describe the purpose and function of an engine lubrication system in relation to engine cooling.

3.1 Piston engine aircraft

3.1.6          State the purpose of mixture control and describe the effect of excessively rich and lean mixture strengths on engine operation.

3.1.7          Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a simple carburettor and a direct injection system.

3.1.8          List typical services provided by the following systems in a light aircraft and the actions a pilot would take to rectify or detect a malfunction:

(a)        hydraulic system;

(b)        electrical system;

(c)        ignition system;

(d)        vacuum system.

3.2 Fuels and oils

3.2.1          Describe the following in relation to fuels:

(a)        the sources of fuel contamination;

(b)        the advantages and disadvantages of fuelling prior to overnight parking;

(c)        how to identify different grades of aviation fuel;

(d)        the hazards/problems with:

(i)         mixing different hydraulic fluids;

(ii)        using incorrect grades of fuel.

3.3 Engine handling

3.3.1          State the causes and effects of detonation, limited to improper use of mixture control, MP/RPM, and use of incorrect fuel octane.

3.3.2          Describe the effect on an engine of the following:

(a)        prolonged idling;

(b)        using incorrect mixture settings in flight.

3.3.3          State reasons for the following limitations/actions:

(a)        minimum oil pressure;

(b)        minimum/maximum oil temperature;

(c)        minimum/maximum CHT;

(d)        maximum RPM;

(e)        ignition checks: pre-take-off and shutdown;

(f)         prolonged use of starter motor;

(g)        use of pitot heat on the ground;

(h)        engine warm up on prolonged descents.

3.3.4          Explain the significance of blue or black exhaust smoke produced by an aircraft piston engine.

3.4 Malfunctions

3.4.1          For paragraphs (a), (b) and (c), the components are listed in paragraph (d):

(a)        describe the cockpit indications which may suggest a malfunction or failure of a component;

(b)        state the actions (if any) a pilot should take to rectify a malfunction or failure of a component;

(c)        describe the consequences if a malfunction or failure of a component listed above cannot be rectified;

(d)        the following is a list of components that applies to paragraphs (a), (b) and (c):

                                (i)      alternator;

(i)         magneto;

(ii)        battery;

(iii)       ignition switch;

(iv)       fuel vent (blockage), fuel/booster pump;

(v)        oil cooler, cowl flaps;

(vi)       vacuum pump;

(vii)      hydraulic brakes.

3.4 Malfunctions

3.4.2          For paragraphs (a) and (b), the piston-engine gauges are listed in paragraph (c):

(a)        with reference to engine gauge indications, identify reasons for an abnormality and state pilot actions (if any) to rectify a problem;

(b)        state the consequences if the problem cannot be rectified by the pilot;

(c)        the following is a list of piston-engine gauges that applies to paragraphs (a) and (b):

                                (i)      oil temperature and pressure;

(i)         CHT;

(ii)        fuel pressure;

(iii)       tachometer;

(iv)       ammeter/load meter;

(v)        voltmeter;

(vi)       engine icing.

3.4 Malfunctions

3.4.4          State the atmospheric conditions of outside air temperature and relative humidity, engine control settings and power conditions which are conducive to the formation in a carburettor, including the severity of the icing, of the following:

(a)        throttle ice;

(b)        fuel evaporation ice;

(c)        impact ice.

3.4.5          State the danger of progressive throttle increments if engine icing is not diagnosed.

3.4.6          Describe the use of carburettor heat for:

(a)        anti-icing;

(b)        de-icing;

(c)        ground operation.

3.4.7          Describe the difference between the use of ‘alternate air’ and ‘carburettor heat’ controls.

3.4.8          State the effect of the application of carburettor heat on engine performance and engine instrument indications.

3.4.9          Describe the symptoms of fuel vaporisation and the method of rectification.

3.5 Flight instruments

3.5.1          Explain the colour code markings on an airspeed indicator (ASI).

3.5.2          Describe the basic operation of the primary flight instruments and associated systems.

3.5.3          State:

(a)        the effect of a blockage of the pitot or static source on the indications displayed by each pressure instrument; and

(b)        the effect of using an alternate static source located inside the cockpit, on the reliability of pressure instrument indications; and

(c)        the effect of low suction and loss of electrical power on the reliability of the gyroscopic flight instruments; and

(d)        the causes of toppling of gyroscopic instruments and identify conditions under which they would re-erect; and

(e)        how, when and why a directional indicating gyro should be synchronised with the magnetic compass.

3.5.4          Describe the methods to determine the serviceability of the primary flight instruments and magnetic compass.

4.1 Basic aerodynamics

4.1.1          Basic physics – aircraft energy state in terms of the following:

(a)        kinetic energy;

(b)        potential energy;

(c)        inertia.

4.1.2          Explain the meaning of the following terms:

(a)        aerofoil, angle of attack, relative airflow;

(b)        centre of pressure, centre of gravity;

(c)        lift, weight, thrust, drag.

4.1.3          Describe the meaning of the following terms in respect of an aerofoil:

(a)        chord;

(b)        span;

(c)        camber;

(d)        aerodynamic stall.

4.2 Lift and drag

4.2.1          State whether lift and drag of an aerofoil will increase or decrease with changes in the following:

(a)        airspeed;

(b)        angle of attack.

4.2.2          Explain the following types of drag which affect a subsonic aircraft in flight:

(a)        parasite (zero lift) – form, interference, skin friction;

(b)        induced (lift dependent).

4.2.3          State how total drag varies with airspeed.

4.3   Climbing

4.3.1          Describe the difference between rate of climb and angle of climb.

4.4 Wake turbulence

4.4.1          List the factors that affect the strength of vortex flow with respect to the following:

(a)        aircraft weight;

(b)        speed;

(c)        wing shape.

4.4.2          State the primary control hazard that may result from a vortex encounter.

4.4.3          Describe the following:

(a)        approximate flow direction around each vortex; and

(b)        approximate location of vortices (in still air) generated by a preceding aeroplane during:

(i)         cruise flight; and

(ii)        take-off and landing; and

(c)        approximate take-off/touchdown points and flight profiles which should be used to avoid wake turbulence.

4.4.4          State the effect of wind and atmospheric turbulence on the following:

(a)        strength of vortices;

(b)        longevity of vortices;

(c)        location and direction of movement of vortices.

4.5 Thrust stream turbulence (jet blast or rotor downwash)

4.5.1          Describe how the hazard from thrust stream turbulence varies with changes in engine power and distance from the source.

5.   Navigation

5.1             Charts

5.1.1          Identify the major features displayed on visual charts.

5.1.2          State the charts used to identify controlled airspace (CTA) and prohibited, restricted and danger (PRD) areas.

5.2             Documentation

5.2.1          Determine runway data from ERSA for a given airport.

5.2.2          Determine data pertaining to Prohibited, Restricted and Danger areas.

5.2.3          Use ERSA to determine the time a restricted area is active.

6.1 Airworthiness and aircraft equipment

6.1             Airworthiness and aircraft equipment

6.1.1          State the documents required to determine the serviceability of an aircraft.

6.1.2          Describe how to certify the aircraft for flight.

6.1.3          Describe the process to record an aircraft defect on a release to service document (maintenance release).

6.2 Take-off and landing performance

6.2.1          Differentiate between pressure height and density height.

6.2.2          Describe how to use an altimeter to obtain:

(a)        local QNH at an aerodrome;

(b)        pressure height of an aerodrome;

(c)        elevation of an aerodrome.

6.2 Take-off and landing performance (cont)

6.2.3          Calculate the following:

(a)        density altitude given pressure altitude (or elevation and QNH) and temperature;

(b)        pressure altitude given airfield elevation and QNH.

6.2.4          State the effect (increase/decrease) of the following factors on take-off, landing, and take-off climb performance:

(a)        strength of headwind/tailwind component;

(b)        air temperature;

(c)        QNH;

(d)        airfield elevation;

(e)        ground effect and windshear;

(f)         frost on an aircraft.

6.2.5          Explain the following terms:

(a)        maximum structural take-off and landing weight;

(b)        climb weight limit.

6.3 Speed limitations

6.3.1          Explain the following terms/abbreviations:

(a)        normal operating speed (VNO);

(b)        never exceed speed (VNE);

(c)        maximum manoeuvre speed (VA);

(d)        turbulence penetration speed (VB);

(e)        limit and design load factors.

6.3.2          Describe situations which may result in an aircraft exceeding speed limits and load factor limits.

6.4 Weight and balance

6.4.1          Explain the meaning of the following terms used in the computation of weight and balance data:

(a)        datum;

(b)        arm;

(c)        moment;

(d)        station;

(e)        centre of gravity and limits;

(f)         empty weight;

(g)        operating weight;

(h)        MTOW;

(i)         zero fuel weight (MZFW);

(j)         MLW.

6.4 Weight and balance (cont)

6.4.2          Calculate the following weight and balance information:

(a)        MTOW;

(b)        capacity and arm of the baggage lockers;

(c)        capacity, arm, grade and specific gravity of the fuel;

(d)        location and arms of the seating.

6.4.3          Determine if an aircraft is loaded within the prescribed CG for the aircraft.

6.4.4          State the likely results of exceeding aircraft weight limits.

Unit 1.1.2   RBKA:  Basic aeronautical knowledge – aeroplane (RPL & PPL)

2. Power plants and systems

2.1             Piston engine

2.1.1          Describe the method of using a manual mixture control for an aircraft piston engine fitted with a fixed pitch propeller.

2.1.2          State what indications would signify the presence of engine icing in an aircraft fitted with a fixed pitch propeller.

3.1 Lift and drag

3.1.1          State whether lift and drag of an aerofoil will increase or decrease with changes in flap settings.

3.1.2          For the following, recall the typical angles of attack at which a basic low-speed aerofoil:

(a)        generates maximum lift (16o);

(b)        is most efficient (best L/D: 4o).

3.1.3          Describe how the angles of attack relate to the following:

(a)        stall speed;

(b)        best glide speed.

3.1.4          State the relationship between attitude, angle of attack and airspeed in level flight.

3.2 Flight controls

3.2.1          Describe the primary and further effects of the elevator, rudder and aileron on an aeroplane’s movement about its longitudinal, lateral and normal (vertical) axes.

3.2.2          Describe the effect of changes in power and airspeed on pitch trim and on the effectiveness of the elevator, rudder and ailerons.

3.2.3          Describe the purpose of trim controls.

3.2.4          State the effect of lowering or raising flap on lift, drag and attitude.

3.3 Climbing

3.3.1          State the effect (increase/decrease) on climb rate and angle resulting from changes in the following:

(a)        weight;

(b)        power;

(c)        airspeed (changed from recommended);

(d)        flap deflection;

(e)        headwind/tailwind component, windshear;

(f)         bank angle;

(g)        altitude and density altitude.

3.4 Descents

3.4.1          State the effect on rate, angle of descent and attitude resulting from changes in the following:

(a)        power – constant IAS;

(b)        flap – constant IAS.

3.4.2          State the effect of headwind/tailwind on the glide path and glide distance (relevant to the earth’s surface).

3.4.3          Explain why gliding at any indicated airspeed other than the recommended glide speed will reduce the distance that can be achieved in still air.

3.5 Turning

3.5.1          Describe what is meant by a balanced turn.

3.5.2          Describe the terms ‘g’ wing loading load factor.

3.5.3          During a level turn, state the effect (increase/decrease) of bank angle on the following:

(a)        stall IAS, including the rate of increase of stall speed with increasing bank;

(b)        the aircraft’s structure (load factor) and possible airframe damage if limits are exceeded.

3.5.4          List reasons for avoiding steep turns:

(a)        shortly after take-off; and

(b)        during a glide, particularly on approach to land.

3.5.5          Explain why an aeroplane executing balanced level turns at low level may appear to slip or skid when turning downwind or into wind.

3.5.6          Given level flight stall speed, determine the stall speed and load factor during turns at 45 and 60 degrees bank.

3.6 Stalling, spinning and spiral dives

3.6.1          Describe:

(a)        the symptoms when approaching the stall; and

(b)        the characteristics of a stall.

3.6.2          Explain:

(a)        the effect of using ailerons when approaching and during the stall; and

(b)        why an aeroplane may stall at different speeds.

3.6 Stalling, spinning and spiral dives (cont)

3.6.3          State the effect (increase/decrease/nil) of the following variables on the level flight stall IAS:

(a)        power;

(b)        flap;

(c)        wind shear vertical gusts;

(d)        manoeuvres;

(e)        weight;

(f)         frost and ice;

(g)        altitude.

3.6 Stalling, spinning and spiral dives (cont)

3.6.4          Describe the aerodynamic principles of stall recovery.

3.6.5          Describe manoeuvres during which an aeroplane may stall at an angle which appears to be different to the true stalling angle.

3.6.6          Differentiate between a spin and a spiral dive in a light aeroplane and describe the standard recovery technique for each manoeuvre.

3.7 Taxi, take-off, landing

3.7.1          Describe situations which may cause an aeroplane to ‘wheel barrow’ and state the recommended pilot action in the event of such an occurrence.

3.7.2          Describe the effect of a cross-wind on high- and low-wing aeroplanes during taxi, take-off and landing.

3.7.3          List the advantages of taking-off and landing into wind.

3.7.4          Compare a flapless approach to an approach with flap in terms of:

(a)        attitude during descent; and

(b)        approach path angle; and

(c)        threshold and touchdown speeds; and

(d)        landing roll.

3.7.5          Describe the effect of wind shear (wind gradient) and ground effect on aerodynamic and flight characteristics and identify.

3.8 Structural damage

3.8.1          Describe the effect of structural damage, including bird strikes, with emphasis on:

(a)        stall characteristics; and

(b)        controllability.

4.1 Take-off and landing performance

4.1.1          State the effect (increase/decrease) of the following factors on take-off, landing, and take-off climb performance:

(a)        runway slope;

(b)        wet runway surface;

(c)        slushy runway surface.

4.2 Aircraft limitations

4.2.1          Explain the following terms/abbreviations:

(a)        flap operating speed (VFO);

(b)        flap extended speed (VFE).

Unit 1.2.1 RARO: RPL aeronautical radio operator (RPL)

2. Aeronautical radio telephony

2.1             Operation of aeronautical radio systems

2.1.1          Meets the English language to Aviation English language standard (AEL).

2.1.2          Recall the phonetic alphabet and the method of transmitting numerals.

2.1.3          Recall the correct use of aircraft call-signs.

2.1.4          State standard radio procedures for outside controlled airspace (OCTA).

2.1.5          State how transmission of time is conducted.

2.1.6          State how to listening to the radio.

2.1.7          State how to establish and maintain communications.

2.1.8          State the hazards of clipped transmissions and the consequences.

2. Aeronautical radio telephony

2.1.9          Correct procedure for the conduct of a routine pre-flight test of an aircraft radio-telephone, including the following:

(a)        use of radio transmit and receive selector switches;

(b)        turning radio on;

(c)        selecting correct frequencies;

(d)        use of squelch control;

(e)        selection of radio navigation equipment;

(f)         correct use of a microphone;

(g)        use of intercom and public address system;

(h)        voice activated systems.

2.1.10       Describe the correct procedure for routine fault finding and correction.

2. Aeronautical radio telephony (cont)

2.1.11       State the standard phraseology to be used to report aircraft positions in the circuit and the required calls for local flights.

2.1.12       State the responsibilities of an aeronautical radio operator in relation to the following:

(a)        secrecy of communications;

(b)        unauthorised transmissions.

2. Aeronautical radio telephony (cont)

2.1.13       Describe the function of each of the following components of an aeronautical radio system:

(a)        power source/battery switch;

(b)        radio master;

(c)        fuses and circuit breakers;

(d)        microphone;

(e)        transmitter;

(f)         receiver;

(g)        antenna;

(h)        headphones and speaker.

2. Aeronautical radio telephony (cont)

2.1.14       Describe the difference between a distress and an emergency message and the standard phrases used in both cases.

2.1.15       Accurately extract radio failure procedures from ERSA.

2.1.16       In relation to the use of an aeronautical radiotelephone, describe the controls used to transmit and receive, including audio panel selections.

2.2 Radio waves

2.2.1          Describe the basic principles and characteristics of radio waves, wave propagation, transmission and reception for the following:

(a)        radio frequency band ranges (MF, HF, VHF, UHF);

(b)        properties of radio waves and the effective range of transmissions;

(c)        propagation of paths of radio waves:

                                (i)      ground waves;

                               (ii)      sky waves;

2.2 Radio waves

(d)        factors affecting the propagation of radio waves and reception:

                                (i)      terrain;

                               (ii)      ionosphere;

                               (iii)     sun spot activity;

                               (iv)     interference from electrical equipment;

                               (v)      thunderstorms;

                               (vi)     power attenuation;

(e)        radio antennas:

                                (i)      characteristics of antennas;

                               (ii)      use of antennas.

2.2.2          Describe the limitations of VHF and HF signals and factors affecting quality of reception and range of signal.

Unit 1.2.2 PAKC: PPL aeronautical knowledge – all aircraft categories (PPL)

2. Power plants and systems

2.1             Piston engines

2.1.1          Describe the meaning of full throttle height.

2.1.2          Describe the effect of increasing altitude and temperature on engine performance.

2.1.3          Describe the effect of the following factors on engine performance:

(a)        fuel/air mixture strength;

(b)        density height and altitude for:

                                (i)      normally aspirated engines; and

                               (ii)      turbocharged/supercharged engines.

2. Power plants and systems

2.2             Supercharging

2.2.1          Describe the purpose of supercharging.

2.2.2          Describe the common methods used to achieve supercharging.

2.2.3          Describe the device(s) used to limit supercharging of the intake system.

2.2.4          Describe the actions a pilot should take if engine limits are exceeded due to supercharging.

2.3             Flight instruments

2.3.1          Explain the following terms:

(a)        pitot-static system;

(b)        pitot pressure static pressure;

(c)        alternate static source;

(d)        pressure error;

2.3.2          Describe the meaning of the following airspeeds:

(a)        indicated (IAS);

(b)        calibrated (CAS);

(c)        true (TAS).

2. Power plants and systems

2.3.3          For the following pressure instruments, state the effect of the factors listed under each instrument on the accuracy of the indications for that instrument:

(a)        ASI:

                                (i)      blockage/leaks (pitot or static);

                               (ii)      manoeuvre induced errors (for example, sharp pull out from a dive);

(b)        VSI:

                                (i)      blockage of the static source;

                               (ii)      lag;

                               (iii)     the benefits of a IVSI;

(c)        Altimeter:

                                (i)      blockage of the static source;

                               (ii)      lag;

                               (iii)     incorrect subscale settings;

                               (iv)     errors due to changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure.

2. Power plants and systems

2.3.4          For a direct reading magnetic compass, describe the principles of construction in relation to the following:

(a)        magnetic needles point to magnetic north;

(b)        fluid decreases oscillations and friction;

(c)        fluid in the compass should not contain bubbles;

(d)        pendulosity of magnet systems causes errors.

2.3.5          State the effect of the following errors on compass indications in the southern hemisphere:

(a)        turning errors;

(b)        acceleration errors.

2.3.6          State the purpose and use of a compass correction card to determine magnetic heading.

2.3.7          Describe the methods used to determine the serviceability of the primary flight instruments before commencing a flight.

3. Aeronautical radio telephony

3.1             Operation of aeronautical radio systems

(a)        recall the phonetic alphabet and the method of transmitting numerals;

(b)        recall the correct use of aircraft call-signs;

(c)        state standard radio procedures for OCTA;

(d)        state how time is transmitted in a message;

(e)        state how to effectively listen to the radio;

(f)         state how to establish and maintain communications;

(g)        state the hazards of clipped transmissions and the consequences.

3. Aeronautical radio telephony

3.2             Routine pre-flight test of an aircraft radio-telephone

(a)        for the following, describe the correct technique and procedure for conducting a routine pre‑flight test of an aircraft radio telephone:

                                (i)      use of radio transmit and receive selector switches;

                               (ii)      turning radio on;

                               (iii)     selecting correct frequencies;

                               (iv)     use of squelch control;

                               (v)      selection of radio nav equipment;

                               (vi)     correct use of a microphone;

                              (vii)     use of intercom and public address system;

                              (viii)    voice activated systems.

3. Aeronautical radio telephony

3.3             Fault finding and corrective action

3.3.1          State the correct procedure for routine fault finding and the corrective actions a pilot should take in relation to a fault.

3.4             Reporting position in circuit and for local flights

3.4.1          State the standard phraseology to be used to report the position of an aircraft in the circuit and required calls for local flights.

3.5             Responsibilities of an aeronautical radio operator

3.5.1          State the responsibility of an aeronautical radio operator for the following:

(a)        secrecy of communications;

(b)        unauthorised transmissions.

3. Aeronautical radio telephony

3.6             State the function of the following components of an aeronautical radio system

(a)        power source/battery switch;

(b)        radio master;

(c)        fuses and circuit breakers;

(d)        microphone;

(e)        transmitter;

(f)         receiver;

(g)        antenna;

(h)        headphones and speaker.

3.7             Distress and emergency messages

3.7.1          Describe the difference between a distress and emergency message and the standard phrases used.

3. Aeronautical radio telephony

3.8             Radio failure procedures

3.8.1          Extract and use the radio failure procedures from ERSA.

3.9             Radiotelephone controls

3.9.1          In relation to the use of an aeronautical radiotelephone, describe the controls used to transmit and receive, including audio panel selections.

3.10           Radio waves

3.10.1       Describe the basic principles and characteristics of radio waves, wave propagation, transmission and reception:

(a)        radio frequency band ranges (MF, HF, VHF, UHF);

(b)        properties of radio waves and the effective range of transmissions;

(c)        propagation of paths of radio waves:

                                (i)      ground waves;

                               (ii)      sky waves.

3. Aeronautical radio telephony

(Continued)

(d)        factors affecting the propagation of radio waves and reception:

                                (i)      terrain;

                               (ii)      ionosphere;

                               (iii)     sun spot activity;

                               (iv)     interference from electrical equipment;

                               (v)      thunderstorms;

                               (vi)     power attenuation;

(e)        radio antennas:

                                (i)      characteristics of antennas;

                               (ii)      use of antennas.

3.10.2       Describe the limitations of VHF and HF signals and factors affecting quality of reception and range of signal.

Unit 1.2.4  PAKA:      PPL aeronautical knowledge – aeroplane (PPL)

2. Power plants and systems

2.1             Propellers

2.1.1          List reasons for propeller overspeed in aeroplanes fitted with a fixed pitch propeller and state the remedial action a pilot should take in the event of an overspeed.

2.2             Aircraft systems

2.2.1          Describe or state the function of the following typical components installed in aeroplanes, including the possibility of ‘overpowering the system and associated precautions a pilot should take:

(a)        stall warning devices;

(b)        auto-pilot components, including the following:

                                (i)      roll attitude heading pitch controls;

                               (ii)      trim indicator;

                               (iii)     cut-out mechanisms.

3. Take-off and landing performance

Note: Use of take-off and landing charts is included in ‘Type’ training.

3.1.1          State the effect (increase/decrease) of the following factors on take-off, landing, and take-off climb performance:

(a)        strength of headwind/tailwind component;

(b)        air temperature;

(c)        QNH;

(d)        density height (non-standard conditions);

(e)        airfield elevation;

(f)         runway slope;

(g)        surface conditions, including the following:

(i)         wet runway;

(ii)        dry runway;

(iii)       slushy runway;

(h)        ground effect and windshear;

(i)         frost on an aircraft.

3. Take-off and landing performance

3.1.2          Differentiate between pressure height and density height.

3.1.3          Describe how to use an altimeter to obtain the following:

(a)        local QNH at an aerodrome;

(b)        pressure height of an aerodrome;

(c)        elevation of an aerodrome.

3.1.4          Explain the following terms:

(a)        maximum structural take-off and landing weight;

(b)        climb weight limit.

3.1.5          State the likely results of exceeding aircraft weight limits.

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