CPL Requirements

APPENDIX 1. FLIGHT CREW LICENCES AND AIRCRAFT CATEGORY RATINGS

You must be at least 18 years old to get your CPL. You also need to do the following for the category rating you want to get with your CPL:

  • learn the theory
  • complete flight training at a CASR Part 141 or 142 training organisation
  • meet the minimum aeronautical experience requirements (see below for more information)
  • pass the CPL theory exam for the category rating set by CASA
  • pass a CPL flight test for the licence and category rating.

Unit 1.2.9                   CAKC:      CPL aeronautical knowledge – all aircraft categories

2. Aircraft general knowledge

2.1             Power plants

2.1.1          Describe the purpose and principle of operation of a simple carburettor in terms of the following:

(a)        idling jets;

(b)        main jets;

(c)        acceleration jets.

2.1.2          State the precautions to be observed to avoid detonation when operating a supercharged engine.

2.1.3          Supercharging

(a)        state the purpose of supercharging;

(b)        list the types of superchargers for the following:

                                (i)      geared (mechanically driven:

                               (ii)      turbo (exhaust driven);

(c)        state the purpose and function of the following components:

(i)         geared superchargers:

(ii)        impeller;

(A)       diffuser;

(iii)       turbo-chargers

(A)       compressor;

(B)       waste gate (fixed, manual and automatic).

2.2 Aircraft systems

2.2.1          Explain the function of the following typical components mentioned in pilot operating handbooks:

(a)        fuel system components, including the following:

                                (i)      auxiliary/booster pump;

                               (ii)      fuel drain;

                               (iii)     fuel pressure gauge;

                               (iv)     fuel flow gauge;

                               (v)      check valves;

(b)        lubrication system, including the following:

                                (i)      by-pass valves;

                               (ii)      oil cooler;

                               (iii)     wet sump system;

                               (iv)     dip stick;

(c)        electrical and ignition systems, including the following:

                                (i)      alternator generator;

                               (ii)      voltage regulator overvoltage relay;

                               (iii)     ammeter voltmeter;

                               (iv)     circuit breaker fuse;

                               (v)      battery ampere hours;

                               (vi)     bus bar battery master switch;

                              (vii)     starter motor starter relay;

                              (viii)    dual ignition distributor ignition switch;

                               (ix)     external power receptacle, ground/flight switch;

2.2 Aircraft systems

(d)        hydraulic system components, including the following:

                                (i)      accumulator;

                               (ii)      actuators;

                               (iii)     check valve restrictors;

(e)        typical fire protection detectors, including the following:

                                (i)      overheat – thermal switches;

                               (ii)      rate of temperature rise – thermocouple;

                               (iii)     flame;

(f)         typical fire protection warning devices, including the following:

                                (i)      lights;

                               (ii)      audio;

(g)        types of fire extinguisher and usage;

(h)        engine cooling devices, including the following:

                                (i)      fins;

                               (ii)      baffles;

                               (iii)     cowl flaps.

2.2 Aircraft systems

(d)        hydraulic system components, including the following:

                                (i)      accumulator;

                               (ii)      actuators;

                               (iii)     check valve restrictors;

(e)        typical fire protection detectors, including the following:

                                (i)      overheat – thermal switches;

                               (ii)      rate of temperature rise – thermocouple;

                               (iii)     flame;

(f)         typical fire protection warning devices, including the following:

                                (i)      lights;

                               (ii)      audio;

(g)        types of fire extinguisher and usage;

(h)        engine cooling devices, including the following:

                                (i)      fins;

                               (ii)      baffles;

                               (iii)     cowl flaps.

2.2.2          Describe or state the function of the typical retractable undercarriage system components mentioned in pilot operating handbooks, including the following:

(a)        uplocks/downlocks;

(b)        anti-retraction devices;

(c)        aural/visual warning devices;

(d)        emergency systems;

(e)        free fall;

(f)         electric, hydraulic, pneumatic.

2.2 Aircraft systems

2.2.3          Describe or state the function of the following typical components mentioned in pilot operating handbooks, including considering the possibility of overpowering the system and the associated precautions pilots should take when operating these system:

(a)        fuel system components, including the following:

                                (i)      auxiliary/booster pump;

                               (ii)      fuel drain;

                               (iii)     fuel pressure gauge;

                               (iv)     fuel flow gauge;

                               (v)      check valves.

(b)        lubrication system, including the following:

                                (i)      by-pass valves;

                               (ii)      oil cooler;

                               (iii)     wet sump system;

                               (iv)     dip stick.

(c)        stall warning devices;

(d)        electrical and ignition systems, including the following:

                                (i)      alternator generator;

                               (ii)      voltage regulator overvoltage relay;

                               (iii)     ammeter voltmeter;

                               (iv)     circuit breaker fuse;

                               (v)      battery ampere hours;

                               (vi)     bus bar battery master switch;

                              (vii)     starter motor starter relay;

                              (viii)    dual ignition distributor ignition switch;

                               (ix)     external power receptacle, ground/flight switch;

2.2 Aircraft systems

(e)        hydraulic system, including the following:

                                (i)      accumulator;

                               (ii)      actuators;

                               (iii)     brake master cylinder;

                               (iv)     check valve restrictors.

(f)         auto-pilot, including the following:

                                (i)      roll attitude heading pitch controls;

                               (ii)      trim indicator;

                               (iii)     cut-out mechanisms.

(g)        typical fire protection detectors, including the following:

                                (i)      overheat – thermal switches;

                                (i)      rate of temperature rise – thermocouple;

                               (ii)      flame;

(h)        typical fire protection warning devices, including the following:

                                (i)      lights;

                               (ii)      audio;

(i)         types of fire extinguishers and usage;

(j)         engine cooling devices, including the following:

                                (i)      fins;

                               (ii)      baffles;

                               (iii)     cowl flaps.

2.3 Barometric flight instruments

2.3.1          Explain the relationship between the following airspeeds:

(a)        indicated (IAS);

(b)        calibrated (CAS);

(c)        true (TAS);

(d)        equivalent (EAS).

2.3.2          Explain the basic principle of operation and construction of the following instruments:

(a)        ASI;

(b)        VSI;

(c)        altimeter;

(d)        artificial horizon;

(e)        direction indicator;

(f)         rate of turn indicator;

(g)        turn coordinator.

2.3.3          State the effect of the following factors on the accuracy of pressure instrument indications:

(a)        ASI:

                                (i)      blockage/leaks (pitot or static); and

                               (ii)      manoeuvre induced errors (for example, sharp pull out from a dive);

(b)        VSI:

                                (i)      blockage of the static source; and

                               (ii)      lag;

Note:  Student should be aware that an IVSI compensates for lag errors.

(c)        altimeter:

                                (i)      blockage of the static source; and

                               (ii)      lag; and

                               (iii)     incorrect subscale settings; and

                               (iv)     errors due to changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure.

2.4 Gyroscopic flight instruments

2.4.1          Explain the gyroscopic properties of rigidity and precession.

2.4.2          In relation to gyroscopic flight instruments:

(a)        compare the advantages and disadvantages of air driven and electrically driven gyroscopes;

(b)        state the effect on a directional indicator of the following:

                                (i)      apparent wander/drift;

                               (ii)      maximum at the poles, zero at the equator;

                               (iii)     transport wander;

(c)        describe the advantages of a directional indicator fitted with a flux valve.

2.5             Direct reading magnetic compass

2.5.1          Describe the principle of construction of a magnetic compass.

2.5.2          Explain how needles point to magnetic north.

2.5.3          Describe how fluid decreases oscillations and friction and why the chamber should not contain air bubbles.

2.5.4          Explain how pendulosity of magnet systems causes errors.

2.6 Aeronautical radio telephony

2.6.1          Operation of aeronautical radio systems:

(a)        recall the phonetic alphabet and the method of transmitting numerals;

(b)        recall the correct use of aircraft call-signs;

(c)        state standard radio procedures for OCTA;

(d)        state how transmission of time is conducted;

(e)        state how to listening to the radio;

(f)         state how to establish and maintain communications;

(g)        state the hazards of clipped transmissions and the consequences.

2.6.2          Correct procedure for the conduct of a routine pre-flight test of an aircraft radio-telephone in the following:

(a)        use of radio transmit and receive selector switches;

(b)        turning radio on;

(c)        selecting correct frequencies;

(d)        use of squelch control;

(e)        selection of radio navigation equipment;

(f)         correct use of a microphone;

(g)        use of intercom and public address system;

(h)        voice activated systems.

2.6.3          State procedure for routine fault finding and correction.

2.6.4          State the standard phraseology for positions in the circuit and required calls for local flights.

2.6.5          State the responsibilities of an aeronautical radio operator with respect to the following:

(a)        secrecy of communications;

(b)        unauthorised transmissions.

2.6.6          State the function of the following components of an aeronautical radio system:

(a)        power source/battery switch, radio master, fuses and circuit breakers;

(b)        microphone;

(c)        transmitter;

(d)        receiver;

(e)        antenna;

(f)         headphones and speaker.

2.6.7          Describe the difference between a distress and emergency message and the standard phrases used.

2.6.8          Extract radio failure procedures from ERSA.

2.6.9          In relation to the use of an aeronautical radiotelephone describe the controls used to transmit and receive, including audio panel selections.

2.7 Radio waves

2.7.1          Describe the basic principles and characteristics of radio waves, wave propagation, transmission and reception:

(a)        radio frequency band ranges (MF, HF, VHF, UHF);

(b)        properties of radio waves and the effective range of transmissions;

(c)        propagation of paths of the following types of radio wave:

                                (i)      ground waves;

                               (ii)      sky waves;

(d)        factors affecting the propagation of radio waves and reception with respect to the following:

                                (i)      terrain;

                               (ii)      ionosphere;

                               (iii)     sun spot activity;

                               (iv)     interference from electrical equipment;

                               (v)      thunderstorms;

                               (vi)     power attenuation;

(e)        the following types of radio antennas:

                                (i)      characteristics of antennas;

                               (ii)      use of antennas.

2.7.2          Describe the limitations of VHF and HF signals and factors affecting quality of reception and range of signal.

Unit 1.2.10      CAKA:      CPL aeronautical knowledge – aeroplane   

2.               Engine and systems

2.1 Propellers

2.1.1          Compare the performance characteristics of various propeller and engine systems, including the following:

(a)        aeroplanes with fixed pitch propellers and those fitted with a variable pitch propeller;

(b)        engine operation (within limits) at high MP/low RPM and low MP/high RPM;

(c)        normally aspirated and turbocharged/supercharged engines.

2.1.2          Explain the following with regard to a variable pitch propeller adopting either a full fine or full coarse pitch when the propeller oil pressure is lost:

(a)        centrifugal twisting moment (CTM) tends to reduce (fine) pitch;

(b)        counter weights, when used, increase (coarsen) pitch;

(c)        oil pressure is used to decrease pitch if counterweights are fitted;

(d)        oil pressure is used to increase pitch if counterweights are not fitted.

2.1.3          Describe the following terms:

(a)        blade angle, helix angle/pitch;

(b)        propeller thrust and torque;

(c)        thrust horsepower (THP);

(d)        brake horsepower (BHP);

(e)        asymmetric blade effect.

2.1.4          Describe how a propeller converts engine power into thrust and explain what is meant by fine and course pitch stops.

2.2 Constant speed units (CSU)

2.2.1          Explain the principle of operation of a CSU.

2.2.2          Describe the effect of a CSU malfunction on engine operation.

2.2.3          Explain the method of using engine controls in the event of a malfunction of a CSU.

2.2.4          Describe the cockpit indications in an aeroplane fitted with a variable pitch propeller which could signify:

(a)        the presence of engine ice; and

(b)        when engine ice has been cleared after application of ‘carb heat’.

2.2.5          Explain the effect of using carburettor heat on aeroplanes fitted with a CSU.

2.2.6          Describe how power output is controlled when operating aeroplanes fitted with a variable pitch propeller and describe how engine instruments are used to monitor power.

2.2.7          List the precautions necessary if operating a variable pitch propeller when:

(a)        conducting ground checks; and

(b)        changing power (i.e. use of throttle/RPM levers).

2.3 Undercarriage system

(a)        describe the purpose and function of the following:

                                (i)      oleos/shock struts;

                               (ii)      shimmy dampers;

                               (iii)     nose wheel steering/castering;

(b)        describe the purpose and function of the following retractable undercarriage components:

                                (i)      uplocks/downlocks;

                               (ii)      anti-retraction devices;

                               (iii)     aural/visual warning devices;

                               (iv)     emergency systems;

                               (v)      free fall;

                               (vi)     electric, hydraulic, pneumatic.

Unit 1.3.1 CADC: CPL aerodynamics – all aircraft categories

2. Aerodynamics

2.1             Changes in angle of attack

2.1.1          Explain the effect of changes in angle of attack up to the stalling angle on the following:

(a)        pressure changes above and below an aerofoil;

(b)        changes in airflow characteristics streamlined to turbulent;

(c)        lift and drag;

(d)        the boundary layer.

2.1.2          With reference to CL, CD, CL/CD graphs identify angles of attack associated with the following:

(a)        minimum drag – maximum level flight speed;

(b)        maximum lift – stalling angle;

(c)        best CL/CD – best glide range and still air range.

2.2             Aerodynamic design features

2.2.1          Explain the purpose of the following design features/controls:

(a)        anhedral dihedral aspect ratio sweepback wash-out;

(b)        wing spoilers flaps vortex generators;

(c)        trim tabs.

2.3             Lift and drag

2.3.1          With reference to CL, CD, CL/CD graphs, explain the angles of attack associated with the following:

(a)        minimum drag – maximum level flight speed;

(b)        maximum lift – stalling angle;

(c)        best CL/CD – best glide range and still air range.

2.3.2          State the effect on total drag resulting from changes in IAS, aircraft weight and height.

2. Aerodynamics

2.4             Manoeuvres

2.4.1          Explain the relationship between speed, bank angle, radius and rate of turn during a balanced level turn.

2.4.2          For a given IAS, determine the approximate angle of bank to achieve a rate 1 turn (360o in 2 minutes).

2.4.3          Explain the following:

(a)        power must be applied to maintain speed in a level turn;

(b)        an aeroplane tends to overbank in level and climbing turns and not in descending turns.

2.4.4          Explain the following:

(a)        the effect of aileron drag on turn performance at low airspeed;

(b)        how the following design features offset this drag:

                                (i)      frise ailerons;

                               (ii)      differential ailerons.

2. Aerodynamics

2.5             Performance considerations

2.5.1          Using power required and power available graphs, identify the following:

(a)        stall speed (power on);

(b)        the region of reverse command (sometimes described as the ‘back of the power curve’).

2.5.2          Describe the following terms and cite situations that may result in an aeroplane exceeding load factor and wing loading limits:

(a)        load factor;

(b)        ‘g’;

(c)        wing loading.

2.5.3          Given that certain flight conditions remain constant, explain the effect of the following:

(a)        changes in weight and altitude (height) on:

                                (i)      angle of attack and IAS in level flight;

                               (ii)      level flight range and endurance;

                               (iii)     turn rate and radius;

                               (iv)     glide range and endurance;

(b)        changes in headwind/tailwind component on:

                                (i)      glide range;

                               (ii)      endurance;

(c)        changes in power on turn rate and radius.

2.5.4          Explain how the energy state of an aircraft changes with changes in altitude and airspeed.

2. Aerodynamics

2.6             Stability and control

2.6.1          Explain the effect of the factors listed below on the stability and control of an aeroplane in each of the following 3 planes of movement:

(a)        longitudinal stability:

                                (i)      position of CG;

                               (ii)      movement of centre of pressure;

                               (iii)     changes in thrust;

                               (iv)     tailplane moment;

(b)        lateral stability:

                                (i)      high versus low set wings;

                               (ii)      dihedral versus anhedral;

                               (iii)     sweepback;

(c)        directional stability:

                                (i)      large fore/aft displacement of the CG;

                               (ii)      large versus small fin and rudder moment.

2.6.2          Describe the relationship between directional and lateral stability (spiral instability) and state the effect of spiral instability on the control of an aeroplane.

2.6.3          Recognise statements/diagrams which describe static and dynamic stability.

2.6.4          Describe the controllability problems associated with flight in the region of reverse command.

2.6.5          Explain the purpose of the following:

(a)        trim tabs (fixed and cockpit controlled);

(b)        balance tabs;

(c)        anti-balance tabs;

(d)        aerodynamic balance;

(e)        mass balance.

2.6.6          Explain the function of the items mentioned in 2.6.5 in relation to the movement of a main control surface.

2. Aerodynamics

2.7             Taxi, take-off and landing

2.7.1          Describe the stability and control characteristics of nose wheel aeroplanes during ground operation.

2.7.2          Describe the result of the following factors on the controllability of an aeroplane:

(a)        propeller torque and slipstream effect;

(b)        gyroscopic effect;

(c)        asymmetric blade effect.

2.7.3          Describe the term ‘ground effect’ and its effect on aeroplane performance.

2.8             Stalling, spinning and spiral dives

2.8.1          Describe the following:

(a)        the symptoms when approaching the stall;

(b)        the characteristics of a stall.

2.8.2          Explain the following:

(a)        the effect of using ailerons when approaching and during the stall;

(b)        why an aeroplane may stall at different speeds.

2.8.3          List the effect (increase/decrease/nil) of the following variables on the level flight stall IAS:

(a)        power;

(b)        flap;

(c)        wind shear vertical gusts;

(d)        manoeuvres;

(e)        weight;

(f)         frost and ice;

(g)        altitude.

2.8.4          Describe the aerodynamic principles of stall recovery.

2.8.5          Describe manoeuvres during which an aeroplane may stall at an angle which appears to be different to the true stalling angle.

2.8.6          Differentiate between a spin and a spiral dive in a light aeroplane and describe the standard recovery technique for each manoeuvre.

Unit 1.5.8 CFRC: CPL flight rules and air law – all aircraft categories

2.1 Documentation

2.1             Documentation

2.1.1          Explain the reason for recording flight time in a logbook and state what other information that must be recorded.

2.1.2          Describe the method of obtaining publications and know why it is important to update these documents.

2.1.3          Given an item of operational significance:

(a)        select the appropriate reference document – CASR, CAR, CAO, AIP (Book), CAAP; and

(b)        extract relevant and current information from these documents.

2.1.4          Decode information contained in ERSA, NOTAM and AIP supplements.

2.1.5          Understand the terms and abbreviations in AIP GEN that are relevant to flight in accordance with VFR.

2.2 Pilot licences, privileges and limitations (CPL)

2.2.1          For the CPL, describe the following:

(a)        privileges and limitations of the licence;

(b)        recent experience requirements.

2.2.2          Apply the rules pertaining to flight and duty time limitations for CPL licence holders.

2.3             Flight rules and conditions of flight

2.3.1          Describe which documents must be carried on board an aircraft during flight in Australian airspace.

2.3.2          Apply the relevant rules that relate to the following:

(a)        carriage and discharge of firearms;

(b)        aerodromes where operations are not restricted to runways;

(c)        the conditions relating to flight in PRD areas.

2.2 Pilot licences, privileges and limitations (CPL)

2.2.1          For the CPL, describe the following:

(a)        privileges and limitations of the licence;

(b)        recent experience requirements.

2.2.2          Apply the rules pertaining to flight and duty time limitations for CPL licence holders.

2.3             Flight rules and conditions of flight

2.3.1          Describe which documents must be carried on board an aircraft during flight in Australian airspace.

2.3.2          Apply the relevant rules that relate to the following:

(a)        carriage and discharge of firearms;

(b)        aerodromes where operations are not restricted to runways;

(c)        the conditions relating to flight in PRD areas.

2.3 Flight rules and conditions of flight (cont)

2.3.3          Describe the following:

(a)        rules of the air;

(b)        the requirements relating to the operation of aircraft on, and in the vicinity of, an aerodrome and the conditions relating to turns after take-off;

(c)        separation minima between aircraft for take-off and landing at a controlled aerodromes;

(d)        visual meteorology conditions for operations below 10,000 ft and below 700 ft;

(e)        restrictions on smoking in aircraft during take-off, landing and refuelling;

(f)         altimetry procedures for flight below 10,000 ft.

2.3.4          Apply the rules relating to the following:

(a)        the use of drugs and alcohol and recall the minimum period between alcohol consumption and flight departure;

(b)        temporary medical unfitness.

2.3 Flight rules and conditions of flight (cont)

2.3.5          Recall the requirements relating to the minimum heights for flights over the following:

(a)        populated areas;

(b)        other areas.

2.3.6          Recall the meaning of the following light signals directed at an aircraft:

(a)        steady ‘green’ and steady ‘red’;

(b)        ‘green’, ‘red’, and ‘white’ flashes.

2.3.7          Apply the limitations imposed on the following:

(a)        aerobaitc flight;

(b)        flights over public gatherings.

2.3.8          Recall the requirement to plan to and prior to the end of daylight.

2.4 Air service operations

2.4.1          Apply the relevant rules that relate to the following:

(a)        a pilot’s responsibilities before flight;

(b)        aerodrome meteorological minima;

(c)        flights over water;

(d)        carriage of:

(i)         cargo;

(ii)        sick and handicapped persons;

(iii)       parachutists;

(iv)       dangerous goods;

(v)        animals;

(vi)       flotation and survival equipment.

2.4 Air service operations

2.4.2          State the requirements to test radio equipment prior to taxi and maintain a listening watch.

2.4.3          Extract the restrictions pertaining to the carriage of passengers on certain flights.

2.4.4          Apply the following rules relating to the responsibility of a pilot in command:

(a)        before flight:

(i)         requirements of the following:

(A)       fuel and oil;

(B)       fuelling aircraft;

(C)       starting and ground operations of engines;

(ii)        appropriate passenger briefing;

(b)        during flight, requirements regarding the operation and safety of the aircraft and the authority of the pilot in command.

2.4.5          Recall the following requirements: (cont)

(b)        during flight:

(i)         seat occupation and seat belt requirements:

(A)       occupation of seats;

(B)       wearing of seat belts;

(C)       adjustment of seat belts;

(ii)        manipulation of aircraft controls:

(A)       by pilots;

(B)       not permitted by unauthorised persons.

2.4.6          Recall the precautions pertaining to the security of safety harnesses and other equipment prior to solo flight in dual control aircraft.

2.5 Aerodromes

2.5             Aerodromes

2.5.1          State a pilot’s responsibilities with regard to the use of aerodromes.

2.6             Airspace

2.6.1          Differentiate between the various classifications of airspace.

2.6.2          With respect to the following terms listed in (a) to (g), explain each term and, if applicable, identify airspace boundaries on appropriate charts, and extract vertical limits of designated airspace from charts or ERSA:

(a)        flight information service FIR, FIA, OCTA;

(b)        ATC service CTA, CTR, controlled airspace;

(c)        radio ‘reports’ and ‘broadcasts’;

(d)        VFR route and lanes of entry;

(e)        PRD areas;

(f)         CTAF areas;

(g)        controlled aerodromes.

2.6 Airspace (cont)

2.6.3          Apply permitted tracking tolerances for VFR aircraft to avoid controlled airspace.

2.6.4          Describe the requirements for obtaining clearances, making reports and broadcasts, and describe the procedures for requesting clearances, making reports and broadcasts, and the pilot actions to be taken on receiving an instruction from ATC to be adopted when operating in the following:

(a)        in any class of airspace;

(b)        from or into:

(i)         a certified or registered aerodrome;

(ii)        an uncertified aerodrome.

2.7 Altimetry

2.7.1          Recall the datum from which an altimeter indicates height when the following are set on the subscale:

(a)        area QNH;

(b)        local QNH;

(c)        QFE;

(d)        standard pressure setting.

2.7.2          Recall the procedures that are carried out with the altimeter at the transition altitude and the transition layer on climb and descent.

2.7.3          Derive from AIP the transition layer for any given area QNH.

2.7.4          Recall the method of using an altimeter to derive Local QNH.

2.7.5          Calculate height error caused by setting the altimeter subscale incorrectly.

2.7.6          Recall the meaning of the following:

(a)        height;

(b)        altitude;

(c)        flight level.

2.7.7          Recall the following parameters from the ICAO standard atmosphere:

(a)        MSL temperature;

(b)        pressure lapse rate.

2.8 Emergencies, accidents, incidents

2.8             Emergencies, accidents, incidents

2.8.1          State the conditions under which a pilot may declare a mercy flight and select occasions when a mercy flight must not be undertaken.

2.8.2          Extract from AIP the responsibilities of a pilot regarding the notification of accidents and incidents.

2.8.3          Describe examples of ‘hazards to navigation’ that must be reported by pilots.

2.9             Security

2.9.1          Explain the term ADIZ and extract:

(a)        the general requirements for operations in this zone; and

(b)        the action by the pilot of the intercepted aircraft.

2.9.2          State the powers vested in a pilot in command.

2.10           Airworthiness and equipment

2.10.1       State the purpose of certificates of airworthiness and registration.

2.10.2       Given a typical scenario, extract from regulations, orders and instructions the communication and normal and emergency equipment required to be on board an aircraft.

2.10.3       State the responsibilities of a pilot in command with regard to:

(a)        daily inspections; and

(b)        recording and reporting aircraft defects.

2.10.4       Describe the types of maintenance that may be carried out by the holder of a CPL.

2.10.5       Given a copy of a maintenance release:

(a)        determine its validity; and

(b)        describe the types of operations authorised in the aircraft; and

(c)        list outstanding defects/endorsements and decide whether these affect the airworthiness of the aircraft.

Unit 1.5.9 CFRA: CPL flight rules and air law – aeroplane

2.1             Flight crew licensing

2.1.1          Describe the requirements for holding flight crew licences, ratings and endorsements that apply to aeroplane operations.

2.1.2          Describe the obligations aeroplane pilots must comply with in relation to general competency, flight reviews and proficiency checks.

2.2             Air operations

2.2.1          Describe circuit procedures for aeroplane operations.

2.2.2          Describe the requirements for operating in Class C and D airspace and special VFR clearance provisions.

2.2.3          State the minimum flight instruments required to operate an aeroplane under VFR.

2.2.4          State the rules for placarding unserviceable instruments.

Unit 1.6.2                   CHFC:      CPL Human factors

2. Fitness for flight

2.1             Basic health

2.1.1          Explain the effect and importance on pilot performance of the following factors:

(a)        diet, exercise;

(b)        coronary risk factors – smoking, cholesterol, obesity, hereditary factors;

(c)        upper respiratory tract infection, for example, colds, hay fever, congestion of air passages and sinuses;

(d)        food poisoning and other digestive problems;

(e)        headaches and migraines;

(f)         pregnancy:

(i)         when to stop flying; and

(ii)        impact on cockpit ergonomics;

(g)        injuries;

(h)        ageing;

(i)         alcohol and smoking;

(j)         blood donations;

(k)        dehydration;

(l)         emotional – anxiety, depression, fear.

2.1.2          Explain why a pilot is not to fly when on any medication unless a medical clearance from a DAME has been obtained.

2. Fitness for flight

2.2             Health and fitness

2.2.1          Explain the reasons for, and frequency of, physical examinations and that a CASA network of DAMEs exists.

2.2.2          Explain the role of the CASA with regard to medical fitness and that only those conditions which present a flight safety hazard are disqualifying.

2.3             Alcohol

(a)        explain how alcohol is absorbed and excreted;

(b)        state and explain what a ‘hangover’ is;

(c)        explain the effect a ‘hangover’ may have on flying performance;

(d)        explain the relationship between a ‘hangover’ and level of blood alcohol in a person;

(e)        explain the relationship between the level of blood alcohol and the recovery period from a ‘hangover’;

(f)         state the factors that affect the elimination of alcohol from the body and describe the effects of illicit drugs and alcohol on proficiency, for example:

(i)         judgment, comprehension, attention to detail; and

(ii)        the senses, coordination and reaction times.

2. Fitness for flight

2.4             Drugs

2.4.1          Explain that drug abuse is a behavioural problem and is independent of:

(a)        dependence (addiction); and

(b)        frequent use.

2.4.2          Define illicit or non-illicit psychoactive substances.

2.4.3          Explain the adverse effects of illicit or non-illicit psychoactive substances.

2.4.4          Explain the effects and duration of such effects on human performance related to perception, speed of processing information, and reaction time of such drugs as:

(a)        cannabis-based substances, for example, marijuana, ganja; and

(b)        amphetamine-based substances, for example, ecstasy; and

(c)        opium-based substances, for example, codeine, heroin.

2.5             Blood donations

2.5.1          Explain the effect on flying after giving a blood donation.

2.6             Hyperventilation

2.6.1          Describe the effects of hyperventilation on the human body.

2.7             Atmospheric pressure changes

2.7.1          Trapped gases

(a)        describe the effect of changes in pressure on gases trapped in the body cavities; and

(b)        describe the effect on normal bodily function; and

(c)        state/list measures for prevention/treatment.

 

2. Fitness for flight

2.8             Vision, spatial disorientation, illusions

2.8.1          Describe the limitations of the eye in discerning objects at night and the ‘off‑centre’ method of identifying objects at night.

2.8.2          Explain the limitations of the eye with respect to:

(a)        the ability to discern objects during flight, for example, other aircraft, transmission lines etc; and

(b)        empty field myopia; and

(c)        glare; and

(d)        colour vision in aviation; and

(e)        common visual problems, viz myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, presbyopia; and

(f)         rotor flicker and its effects (helicopters only).

2.8.3          Know of the factors which are conducive to mid-air collisions and describe/practice techniques for visual ‘scanning’.

2.8.4          Describe the sensory systems involved in maintaining body equilibrium i.e. that equilibrium is normally maintained by use of the eyes, inner ear and proprioceptive system (‘seat of pants’).

2.8.5          Describe illusion(s) that may be associated with the factors listed below:

(a)        ‘leans’; and

(b)        linear and angular accelerations; and

(c)        unperceived changes in the pitch roll yaw; and

(d)        autokinetic illusions; and

(e)         ‘graveyard spin’ illusion; and

(f)         somatogravic illusion.

2. Fitness for flight

2.8             Vision, spatial disorientation, illusions (cont)

2.8.6          Explain:

(a)        that sensory illusions usually occur when external visual clues are poor or ambiguous and that they are predictable; and

(b)        the importance of an artificial visual reference system and a pilot’s ability to use the system; and

(c)        the factors that may make a person more susceptible to disorientation; and

(d)        how to overcome sensory illusions.

2.9             Motion sickness

2.9.1          Describe the cause of motion sickness.

2.9.2          Explain the factors which may aggravate motion sickness.

2.10           Acceleration ‘g’ effects

2.10.1       Describe the effects of positive and negative accelerations on the human body, include:

(a)        on the cardiovascular systems; and       

(b)        vision; and

(c)        consciousness.

2. Fitness for flight

2.11           Toxic hazards

2.11.1       Describe the sources, symptoms, effects and treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.

2.11.2       Explain the effect of breathing air contaminated by fuel and other noxious or toxic aviation products.

2.12           The atmosphere and associated problems

2.12.1       Describe the chemical composition of the atmosphere and recall the variation of temperature and pressure with altitude.

2.12.2       Describe the circumstances where there is a risk of a pilot suffering symptoms associated with the ‘bends’ (release of nitrogen in the bloodstream), for example, rapid rate of climb in unpressurised aircraft to altitudes in excess of FL180 or continued flight at altitude following failure of the aircraft pressurisation system.

2.12.3       Describe what is meant by the partial pressure of oxygen.

2.13           Hypoxia

2.13.1       Describe the causes of hypoxia and recognise the symptoms of hypoxia particularly:

(a)        its effect on night vision; and

(b)        the dangers of behavioural changes, for example, lack of self-criticism, overconfidence and a false sense of security; and

(c)        know that symptoms are difficult to detect in healthy individuals and can develop much faster at higher altitudes, for example, 14,000 ft; and

(d)        list factors which may increase a person’s susceptibility to hypoxia; and

(e)        state the approximate time of useful consciousness (effective performance time: EPT) at 20,000, 25,000 and 30,000 ft and list factors which affect EPT; and

(f)         list methods of combating various forms of hypoxia.

 

2. Fitness for flight

2.14           Human factors considerations

2.14.1       Know the basic concepts of information processing and decision making, including:

(a)        how sensory information is used to form mental images; and

(b)        the influence of the following factors on the decision-making process:

(i)         personality traits, for example, introvert/extrovert;

(ii)        pride, peer pressure, employer pressure;

(iii)       the desire to get the task done;

(iv)       anxiety, overconfidence, boredom, complacency;

(v)        types of memory – long- and short-term;

(vi)       memory limitations;

(vii)      aides memoire, rules of thumb;

(viii)     work load/overload;

(ix)       skill, experience, currency.

2.14.2       Discuss the general concepts behind decision making and the methods of enhancing decision‑making skills.

2.14.3       Concepts of stress:

(a)        know the interaction between stress and arousal and the effects of short- and long-term stress on pilot performance and health; and

(b)        know the symptoms, causes and effects of environmental stress working in an excessively hot, cold, vibrating or noisy environment; and

(c)        know the symptoms and effects of domestic and work-related stress; and

(d)        know the effects of stress on performance; and

(e)        know the principles of stress management, for example:

(i)         cognitive and behavioural techniques; and

(ii)        relaxation; and

(iii)       time management.

 

2. Fitness for flight

2.15           Threat and error management

2.15.1       Explain the principles of TEM and detail a process to identify and manage threats and errors during single-pilot operations.

2.15.2       Explain the meaning of ‘threat’ and give examples of threats:

(a)        give an example of a committed error and how action could be taken to ensure safe flight;

(b)        explain how the use of checklists and standard operating procedures can prevent errors;

(c)        describe how an undesired aircraft state can develop from an unmanaged threat or error;

(d)        explain what resources a pilot could identify and use to avoid or manage an undesired aircraft, state such as being lost or entering adverse weather;

(e)        explain the importance of ensuring that tasks are prioritised to manage an undesired aircraft state;

(f)         describe how establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships can promote safe flight.

 

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